In summary, our results show that Ru PDT (with clinically approved red light) produces clinically desired anticancer attack on melanoma via two-prongs: 1) by causing direct cytotoxicity in melanoma cells, and 2) via ICD-mediated generation of protective antitumor immunity [Figure 1b]. Such a Ru PDT-induced and non-exclusive two-pronged attack on cancers can be harnessed not only to eradicate existing cancer cells but also to establish protection against possible cancer relapse.


This work was supported via the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)’s Award R01CA222227 to S.A.M. and S.G. The content in this article is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

Disclosure statement

S.A.M. has a potential research conflict of interest due to a financial interest with Theralase Technologies, Inc. and PhotoDynamic, Inc. A management plan has been created to preserve objectivity in research in accordance with UTA policy.

Full article: Discovery of immunogenic cell death-inducing ruthenium-based photosensitizers for anticancer photodynamic therapy